Much of current medicine is practiced at the macroscopic organ level with doctors specializing in the heart (cardiologists), brain (neurologists), or liver (hepatologists) for example. However, by applying the same miniaturizing technology used in microelectronics, it is only natural to assume that future medical breakthroughs will occur at the micron scale (cellular and subcellular levels) and even smaller at the nanometer scale (molecular level).
Pharmacology, nutrition, and cell energy all occur at the nanometer (1 × 10−9 meter) level. Future advances will come from understanding what goes on deep inside human cells. The first forays into medical nanotechnology have been made in targeted delivery of medications with the hope that “magic bullet” chemotherapy will eradicate tumor cells with lower systemic toxicity.